With a number of civil and commercial functions in that period of big expansion of the Roman republic it was necessary to build four basilicas (a basilica had a social purpose until 313 AD with the Edit of Tolerance by Constantine and Licinius in Milan before having the religious one even in architecture, adding the transept and giving the design of a cross) for the justice administration and other activities linked to commercial transactions. The oldest one is the Basilica Emilia built in 179 BC, followed by the Basilica Sempronia built in 170 BC and on which remains Julius Cesar erected the Basilica Julia, the biggest of the Roman Forum, finished by Octavian Augustus.
in 29 BC to remember the great Roman dictator after his death the 15th March of 44 BC, he rebuilt the Temple of Saturn (Tempio di Saturno) and deplaced the ancient Curia founded by Servius Tullius (one of the seven kings of the period going from 753 BC to 509 BC, when the Roman Republic took place) where three hundred Senators met to discuss and emaneted the laws. From the Capitol Hill loggia Filippo will also show you three columns in Corinthian style near the Temple of the Virgin Vestals: this is what remains of the Temple of the twins Castor and Pollux, also called Dioscuri (two men of the Argonauts team leaded by Jason to catch the Golden Fleece) represented also with two horses on the top of the Cordonata (the stair designed by Michelangelo in 1536 leading from Via del Teatro Marcello to the Capitol Square). Built in 484 BC, it was renovated under Octavian Augustus: from the original eight columns, only three remain.
At the opposite side of the Forum you will see the Temple of Antonino and Faustina, built in 141 BC under Antoninus Pius, the successor of the Emperor Hadrian, dedicated to his wife by him and to him by the Romans. It was transformed in the Church of San Lorenzo in Miranda in the VII century AD and all the peperino columns of its portico are still standing. The oldest church of the cradle of Rome is Santa Maria Antiqua, built in Imperial epoch and consacred to the Virgin Mary during the sixth century AD: some great artistic and historical value frescoes from the VI to the IX century AD are visible inside. Stuck to the Forum but not inside its perimeter you will see San Giuseppe dei Falegnami church, built in the XVI century in baroque style, under which are still the Chapel of the Cross (Cappella del Crocifisso) at the first underground level and the Mamertine Prison (Carcere Mamertino) at the second, also called Tullianum, where the opponents of Rome were made prisoners. There, according to the legend, the prisoner Saint Peter baptized his jailers with the water coming from a miraculous source. On the opposite side of Via dei Fori Imperiali, a street leading from Venice Square (Piazza Venezia) to the Colosseum built in 1932 under Mussolini, you will see the huge complex of the Trajan Forum and the Trajan Markets with the Basilica Ulpia (Trajan's name was Marco Ulpio Traiano), the Greek and Latin libraries and the Trajan Column. The Markets were built on three stories, still visible today, forming a great semi-circle which ended in a square room on which overlooked two levels of shops: their purpose was to host shops in a more comfortable way than the already too much crowded Roman Forum.
At the end of Via dei Fori Imperiali, just before getting to the Colosseum, Filippo will show you the imposant ruins of the somptuous Maxentius Basilica, more properly Constantine Basilica (Basilica di Massenzio), a very big architectural complex built in the beginning of the IV century AD: 100 meters (900 feet) long and 65 meters (195 fett) wide, it had three huge naves and its purpose was to shock the city of Rome suffering at that time a very big political crisis between Maxentius and Constantine (pagan the first, christian the second).Those are only some examples of what you will discover in a Rome tour with Filippo: he will show you when and why these historical and artistical traces were planned and built, hoping to give you a better idea of what was this city on the Tiber river famous to have dominated the known world up to the IV century AD.
your driver guide knows the quickest itineraries to avoid traffic jams and has also special permissions allowing him to avoid long waitings in line. He can also park as closer as possible to the different historical sites.